Andean South America

Four-cornered hat with design elements that are similar to those on a fragment of a four-cornered hat found in cave burials near Huanca Sancos, Ayacucho. Assigned to Epoch 2 (AD 825–900) (Museen Dahlem, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin VA63996, no provenience, height = 10 cm, circumference = 43.7 cm). Courtesy of Patricia J. Knobloch.
Wari female figurine or effigy. This example lacks the well-modeled attributes evident in some figurines and is not depicted as nude. Instead, she has a carefully painted dress with white underskirt and a decorated hem, belt, and collar held in place by a set of three tupu pins. Similar to many Nasca and Paracas figurines, her face is decorated with “tear marks,” in this case executed in red slip. Like most votive figurines, her arms are placidly placed across the chest/abdomen. Drawn from photo (Young-Sanchez 2004:153, Figure 6.1, colors approximate, specimen represents American Museum of Natural History, New York 41.2/8596).
Photo of head of small ceramic figurine from the site of Iwawi, Bolivia. The fragment dates to the Tiwanaku period and was found in domestic contexts. Like female figurines from other contexts, it has long, center-parted hair; traces of black slip/paint still remain. A possibly unique Tiwanaku trait may be the strongly emphasized chin, which here protrudes past the nose. Original photo courtesy of the Iwawi Archaeological Project.
Nasca vase with bands of female, “Betty Boop” faces. The female face motif is accompanied by chevrons in alternating bands of red, gray, brown, cream, and yellow; a band of stylized triangular faces; and a band of more abstract icons, possibly stylized trophy heads. From the collections of the Milwaukee Public Museum, author photo.
Late Nasca face-neck jars depicting females, most in active poses. (a) A woman in a dark dress carries a bundle of wood suspended from a tumpline across her forehead and leading a white camelid, perhaps to a sacrificial offering (drawn from photo by Proulx 2006:Plate 36, colors approximate); (b) a woman in a white dress, red facial decoration, and fish-scale markings on her arms rests with legs flexed while carrying two anthropomorphic figures (babies?) on her back (drawn from photo by Proulx 2006, colors approximate); (c) this example is less active than the others illustrated but wears a mantle with an elaborate depiction of a mythical creature (adapted and redrawn from Proulx 2004); (d) this example displays strings of peppers or legume pods perhaps in the act of making an offering (drawn from photo of Arthur M. Sackler collection accession N339, published by Katz 2004, colors approximate).
Tiwanaku effigy jars show females in seated or kneeling poses in which hands and feet are often only implied by the modeled form. (a) This is one of several jar fragments from Pariti found as part of a buried cache of ceramics, many of which represented females clothed in striped mantles and wearing a lobed headdress or elaborate hairdo. A small raised bump of clay on the right cheek, near the nose, may represent a mole, suggesting that the vessel is a portrait of an actual person, not merely an idealized image. Drawn from photo by A. Korpisaari (Korpisaari and Parssinen 2005:Photo 4); (b) this vessel from Cochabamba depicts a sitting or kneeling female with one knee raised. Like the Pariti figure, her mantle has a dark stripe at the hem and her hair is held in place by two large strips at the bottom of the braids. Drawn from black and white photo (Eisleb and Strelow 1980:Plate 258); (c) another vessel from the Cochabamba region depicting a female figure in a striped mantle and perhaps a headdress. Drawn from black and white photo (Eisleb and Strelow 1980:Plate 259); (d) a vasija vessel form with a painted and modeled female face as the main element of decoration. Like other females, her hair is parted to either side and she may have “tear marks” on her cheeks. Like many effigies, the nose is modeled, but in a uniquely Tiwanaku twist, the chin is also modeled to give it prominence.
Rooftop scene with three female figures prominently placed in the center of the ensemble. The female figures are flanked by four male figures, two on each side, each wearing a different type of head covering; one plays a drum. The scene may represent a feast or ceremony in which chicha is being served from several large jars. The largest of the figures is the central female; she wears a prominent collar or pendant and appears to be presiding over the activity flanked by her two female companions. The males appear only as auxiliary figures. Vessel is from Museo Nacional de Antropología, Arqueología, y Historia de Perú, registry C-55264, after Proulx (2006:Figure 5.118) and Tello (1959:Figure 111).
Topa Inka with his helmet and tocapu, after Guaman Poma (1987 [1615]:110).
Central Andean map. Names of modern cities and geographic features are printed on map while archaeological sites are numbered from northern Peru to northern Chile and Bolivia. Courtesy of Patricia J. Knobloch.
Drawing of an anthropomorphic camelid birthing a human infant from a ch’allador found at Pariti. Reminiscent of the pooled blood on the Siguas textile in Figure 20.5 and the zigzag lines of blood illustrated on the figurine in Figure 20.10, blood (and/or amniotic fluid or placental matter) flows down from between the camelid-mother’s squatting, anthropomorphic legs. Based on a photo by A. Korpisaari (Korpisaari and Parssinen 2005:Photo 40). Color approximate.

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