Map showing the sites mentioned in the text and the location of areas with presence of hallucinogenic paraphernalia in the Circum-Puna style. Drawing by Tania Basterrica.
Excavation map showing features 1 (F1) and 2 (F2) as well as wall foundations of the building partially excavated during the years 2004 to 2006. Excavation unit locations and numbers are shown at a smaller scale above. Drawing by Antti Korpisaari.
Central Andean map. Names of modern cities and geographic features are printed on map while archaeological sites are numbered from northern Peru to northern Chile and Bolivia. Courtesy of Patricia J. Knobloch.
Map of Wari and Moche territories, with sites and regions mentioned in the article (redrawn from Castillo and Uceda 2008; Isbell 2000).
(a) The Moquegua Valley is located in southern Peru (the area of probable Wari influence is shaded). (b) The Moquegua Drainage is roughly divided into the Middle Valley, which is the area dominated by Tiwanaku settlements, and the steeper upper drainages, which are dominated by Wari-related sites. Nevertheless, each polity had colonial settlements in both areas, and current evidence suggests that for at least some parts of the Middle Horizon, Wari and Tiwanku settlers in the upper drainages shared the use of the same irrigation system (Williams 2001; Williams and Nash 2002).
The summit of Cerro Baúl is the location of the most monumental Wari site in the Moquegua region. The map shows Sectors A, B, and C (Williams 2001). The architecture at the site includes building forms identified at Huari, Pikillacta, and other Wari centers, such as Wari patio groups and D-shaped structures. Mapping and excavation reveal that the site is organized into several agglutinated complexes. A large compound on the eastern edge of the monumental core of the site has been identified as an elite residence or a provincial palace complex (see Moseley et al. 2005).
An elite residential compound or palace has been identified on the summit of Cerro Baúl in Sector A. The shaded areas were excavated over four field seasons from 2001 to 2007. The current map is an educated guess of wall placement in unexcavated areas. Unit 25 appears to have been an entrance hall, Unit 40A contains activities associated with ceramic production, and Unit 40B is not labeled and is a narrow corridor leading from Unit 25 to 41E. Unit 40C appears to have been a garden space because we found the stumps of three trees, which would never have grown on the summit of Cerro Baúl without human care. This space also lacked a floor of any kind. Units 41A, 41B, and 41C were small rooms built on descending terraces; all were accessed from the adjacent patio (41D), which was partially excavated, and 41E appears to be a very large open space with evidence of ritual activity and productive activities such as lapidary work, the grinding of ceramic tempers and pigments, and weaving.
The plot of Unit 9 from Cerro Baúl shows the results of reconstructing smashed vessels from the patio space. Thus far, over 60 vessels have been identified using an “MNI” approach, but not all 60 have been plotted because of the scattering of fragments of some vessels.
Location of the San Pedro de Atacama oases, indicating ayllu boundaries and sites included in this study.
Map of the south-central Andes showing locations of the Quebrada de Humahuaca, Puna de Jujuy, and archaeological sites discussed in the text.